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Despite an excess of loans and lenders, comparison shopping has been eased by the development of computer-loan origination systems and mortgage-reporting services – firms that survey major lenders in metropolitan areas every week or so and publish information sheets on who is offering what loans on what terms.

Check with several mortgage companies and use one or more reporting services. Rely on your own efforts, lots of telephone calls and possibly some old-fashioned legwork. If there isn’t a reporting service covering your area, begin the search at your own bank or savings and loan.

Sources of Mortgage Money:

Independent Mortgage Companies generate just over half of all home mortgages, including most VA-guaranteed and FHA-insured loans.

Savings Institutions: Savings and loan associations and savings banks originate close to a quarter of home mortgages. Most are conventional loans – those not guaranteed by the VA or FmHA, or insured by the FHA.

Commercial Banks are active in residential lending. Banks also are a major supplier of loans for mobile-home buyers.

Mortgage Brokers act as intermediaries. A broker keeps tabs on the mortgage market through ties to local, regional and national lenders, and can refer a prospective borrower to a mortgage banker, savings institution or a commercial bank. Brokers don’t lend money and can’t approve loans.

Credit Unions make close to one-third of all first-mortgage loans, but you must be a member.

Public Agencies: State and local finance agencies make below-market-rate financing available to eligible low- and moderate-income first-time buyers through the sale of tax-exempt bonds.

Employers and Unions: Don’t overlook your employer as a source of assistance. An employer may subsidize the interest or even act as a lender. Unions are another possibility. The AFL-CIO offers what it calls “Union Privilege.” Unions that sign on can make first-time home loans available to eligible members for as little as three percent down.


Once a contract becomes binding, you probably will have to arrange for financing. Depending on the terms of the contract, the purchase of the home may be contingent on your being able to get financing at certain terms by a certain date.

The Real Estate Professional might provide you a list of lenders. Most home buyers get loans through savings institutions and mortgage bankers and, to a lessor extent, from commercial banks, credit unions, or other private sources. In some cases, the seller may be willing to offer financing. Sellers often can offer a loan to a buyer at a competitive interest rate and attractive terms. Check on specifics.

Types of loans
In general, three broad categories of loans are available:

  1. Private versus government loans  – Most mortgage loans are made by savings institutions, banks and mortgage  companies. On government (FHA and VA) loans, the government does not  actually loan the money but rather guarantees (or insures) to repay the      lender if you default for some reason. Generally, a lender will require  you to buy mortgage insurance, particularly if you make a low down      payment. This insurance may be paid at closing or added to the loan  amount. VA loans require no mortgage insurance, but only qualified  veterans may apply for them. Mortgage insurance protects the lender, to a degree, in the event of default.

Government loans have important advantages – they generally require a lower down payment than conventional loans and often have a lower interest rate or points. One the down side, government loans limit the amount you can borrow, often take longer to process, and sometimes have higher closing costs.

  1. Fixed rate versus adjustable rate – On a fixed rate mortgage, the interest rate stays the same over the life of the loan, usually 15 or 30 years. That means your payment will not change except for adjustments for taxes and insurance.

Adjustable rate mortgages go by a variety of names, but basically these loans have interest rates or monthly payments that can go up or down over time. These mortgages typically start out with a lower interest rate, lower monthly payments, and lower fees and points than fixed rate mortgages. They often appeal to first-time home buyers, younger couples who expect their incomes to grow in the coming years, and people who might not have much cash for down payment and closing costs.

If you consider an adjustable rate mortgage, ask the lender to explain the terms fully. Ask about the interest rate cap; the maximum rate you will be charged no matter how high rates go in the market. Don’t confuse rate cap with payment cap. When the payment is not enough to cover interest, the excess interest is added to your principal balance, so your debt increases instead of decreases. Also ask about the index that will be used to calculate future interest rates and how index charges will affect your mortgage.

  1. Assumable versus new loan –  Some loans, particularly FHA and VA loans as well as some adjustable rate mortgages, are assumable. That means a buyer can assume an existing loan  usually on the same terms as the previous owner.

Assuming a loan may save some costs and time. As the buyer, you may pay the lender a fee at closing for processing the assumption.

The true price of financing
When shopping for a loan, don’t judge the loan by the interest rate alone. Compare several items in the entire loan package, including:

  • Points on a low-interest-rate loan can be double those for a loan with a higher interest rate, causing you to pay more up front and in cash.
  • Total fees charged by the lender. Some lenders will absorb the cost of many services, while other do not, so ask in advance.
  • Term. In general, the longer the life of the loan and the more fixed the payment, the more you can  expect to pay over the life of the loan. For example, a 30-year, fixed-rate loan will cost more in interest than a 15-year, fixed-rate  loan.
  • Penalties. Ask what penalties will be charged if you pay off the note early. A prepayment clause could require you to pay a penalty if you pay off the loan early, such as refinancing the loan at a later time.

Loan approval process
When you apply for a loan, the lender will ask about your finances. You will already have most of the facts and figures in the financial information you compiled earlier. The process can take several weeks.

From the lender’s viewpoint, approving the loan is only part of the risk; the other part is the property itself. The lender may require an appraisal to verify that the home is worth the loan as well as a physical survey to discover any encroachments on the property. Repairs may be required. Insurance must be purchased. Verifications of employment, deposits, and other matters must be obtained. Loan documentation and conveyances instruments must be drawn and approved. In addition, the title company must research the title and arrange for paying off any liens, taxes, and other costs. All these conditions and other conditions must be satisfied before a transaction can close.

Hazard insurance
As another protection, the lender may require insurance protecting the home against hazards such as fire and storms. (Flood insurance will most likely be required if the house is in the flood plain and would be a separate policy.) Hazard insurance may be included in a homeowner’s policy that covers other risks such as theft and liability. Even if not required by a lender, it is probably a good idea for you to seriously consider all types of insurance. Discuss these issues with your insurance agent.

You are about to make what will most likely be the largest transaction of your life: your home mortgage. Unfortunately, many homebuyers do not take the time to research some of the little but weighty intricacies of mortgages. Researching the mortgage process takes little time compared to the tens of thousands of dollars it could save you.
Doesn’t it make sense to become as completely informed as possible before you buy your next home? This special report is designed to help you avoid nine common mistakes. Remember that the right lender can help you make good, sound business decisions based on your personal financial situation.


  1. Find a Reputable Lender – This is the most important choice you can make when starting the mortgage process. If you don’t trust your lender, you are in for a long and stressful home-buying experience.
  2. Pricing – Don’t be lured into a mortgage company strictly by promises of low rates. Find out how long the advertised rate is guaranteed for. Make sure there is enough time to close on your loan. Some companies may make these “promises” but will try changing the rate prior to closing. They may claim that your “lock-in” rate has expired so make sure you have the expiration date in writing. In some cases, the lender may even try to delay your closing to break the “lock-in” rate. In other cases the delay may be beyond the lender’s control. Make sure to allow yourself plenty of time for closing. Delays in the process are common and everyone (builders, title companies, even yourself) is responsible.
  3. Programs – You will see several programs that offer special low-interest rates. Keep in mind that they may not be the best program for your situation. Make your lender explain what programs they feel best serve your needs and more importantly, why.
  4. Fixed or Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM) – Conventional thinking is that fixed is always better and while this is sometimes true, it is not always the case. The key here is to ask, “How long am I going to live at this property?” An ARM can actually be a better choice if you are going to be in the home for a short time. The average for how long a first time homebuyer keeps their mortgage is less than four years. In general, the longer you plan on staying in your home, the better a fixed rate mortgage will suit your needs.
  5. Don’t try to bottom out the market – Deciding when to lock in to a mortgage rate can be difficult. Many people will float, trying to guess when rates have hit bottom. Unfortunately, a lot of times they will wait too long and end up with a much higher interest rate. There is nothing wrong with floating but keep a close eye on economic indicators. Your daily newspaper or even the nightly news can be an excellent source of information on the latest interest rate activity. As closing nears, it might be worth locking in.
  6. Negotiate problems prior to closing – Its common for a problem to arise before closing. Waiting until closing will rarely be in your best interest. For instance, if you accept $400 at closing in lieu of the seller making a repair and after closing you find that the repair will actually cost $600, you’ve obviously made a poor decision. Whether the builder agreed to add an item and has not or the seller has made a repair that is not acceptable to you, discussing a solution prior to closing will give both parties time to analyze and determine options.
  7. Be prepared for closing costs – In addition to the down payment, you will be required to pay fees and other closing costs at the time of the final transaction. Closing costs typically range from 2 percent to 6 percent but will be dependent upon your situation. Lenders must provide you with a “Good Faith Estimate.” The “Good Faith Estimate” will breakdown all costs so that you may know what to expect at closing.
  8. Close at the end of the month – When making a mortgage payment, you will be paying interest that has accrued from the previous month. Upon closing however, your lender will charge you prepaid interest for the date the loan is recorded through the end of that month. Therefore, one way to lower your closing costs is to close in the latter part of the month. This will lower the amount of prepaid interest that you must pay.
  9. Look out for hidden fees — Check for certain miscellaneous fees such as inspection, notary, and document preparation. These types of fees can mean hundreds of dollars in closing costs. Remember that this is your money at stake. Never should you be afraid to ask for explanations of fees you are being charged.


Written by Staff